London-based Mr McGoldrick, who jointly runs Goldman's distressed debt business, is leaving for "personal reasons", according to the spokesman, with no other details given.
Stephen McGuinness will now take sole control of the business from New York.
Mr McGoldrick is best known in the banking world for his role in capitalizing on the failures of Japanese golf courses in November last year.
It is believed that his purchase of debt issued by the golf courses made Goldman around $500 million.
The bank will now face the task of trying to replace Mr McGoldrick, who has been one of the stars of the bank in recent years.